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What is Sinusitis?

Sinusitis is an inflammation or swelling of the tissue lining the sinuses. Healthy sinuses are filled with air. But when they become blocked and filled with fluid, germs can grow and cause an infection.

Conditions that can cause sinus blockage to include:

  • The common cold
  • Allergic rhinitis, which is swelling of the lining of the nose caused by allergens
  • Small growths in the lining of the nose called nasal polyps
  • A deviated septum, which is a shift in the nasal cavity

Types of Sinusitis

You may hear your doctor use these terms:

Acute sinusitis usually starts with cold-like symptoms such as a runny, stuffy nose and facial pain. It may start suddenly and last 2-4 weeks.

Subacute sinusitis usually lasts 4 to 12 weeks.

Chronic sinusitis symptoms last 12 weeks or longer.

Recurrent sinusitis happens several times a year.

What are the symptoms of a sinus infection?

The symptoms of sinusitis are similar to those of a common cold. They may include:

  • a decreased sense of smell
  • fever
  • stuffy or runny nose
  • headache from sinus pressure
  • fatigue
  • cough

It may be difficult for parents to detect a sinus infection in their children. Signs of an infection include:

  • cold or allergy symptoms that don’t improve within 14 days
  • a high fever (above 102°F or 39°C)
  • thick, dark mucus coming from the nose
  • a cough that lasts longer than 10 days

Symptoms of acute, subacute, and chronic sinus infections are similar. However, the severity and length of your symptoms will vary.

Who is at risk for a sinus infection?

Anyone can develop a sinus infection. However, certain other health conditions and risk factors can increase your chances of developing one, such as:

  • a deviated nasal septum, when the wall of tissue that runs between your right and left nostrils displaces unevenly to one side
  • a nasal bone spur (a bone growth in the nose)
  • nasal polyps, usually noncancerous growths in the nose
  • a history of allergies
  • recent contact with mold
  • weak immune system
  • tobacco smoking
  • recent upper respiratory infection
  • cystic fibrosis, a condition that causes thick mucus to build up in your lungs and other mucus membrane linings
  • dental infection
  • airplane travel, which can expose you to a high concentration of germs
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What is Plasma?

Plasma uses

Plasma is the often forgotten part of blood. White blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are important to body function. But plasma also plays a key role. This fluid carries the blood components throughout the body.

Plasma is the clear, straw-colored liquid portion of blood that remains after red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other cellular components are removed. It is the single largest component of human blood, comprising about 55 percent, and contains water, salts, enzymes, antibodies, and other proteins.

Facts about Plasma

Composed of 90% water, plasma is a transporting medium for cells and a variety of substances vital to the human body.

Plasma carries out a variety of functions in the body, including clotting blood, fighting diseases, and other critical functions.

Source plasma is plasma that is collected from healthy, voluntary donors through a process called plasmapheresis and is used exclusively for further manufacturing into final therapies (fractionation).

Source plasma donors may be compensated for their time and effort.

Recovered plasma is collected through whole blood donation in which plasma is separated from its cellular components. Recovered plasma may be used for fractionation.

How does plasma keep you healthy?

Plasma is a critical part of the treatment for many serious health problems. This is why there are blood drives asking people to donate blood plasma.

Along with water, salt, and enzymes, plasma also contains important components. These include antibodies, clotting factors, and the proteins albumin and fibrinogen. When you donate blood, healthcare providers can separate these vital parts from your plasma. These parts can then be concentrated into various products. These products are then used as treatments that can help save the lives of people suffering from burns, shock, trauma, and other medical emergencies.

The proteins and antibodies in plasma are also used in therapies for rare chronic conditions. These include autoimmune disorders and hemophilia. People with these conditions can live long and productive lives because of the treatments. In fact, some health organizations call plasma “the gift of life.”

Donating Plasma

 If you want to donate plasma to help others in need, you will go through a screening process. This is to make sure your blood is healthy and safe. If you qualify as a plasma donor, you’ll spend about an hour and a half at a clinic on every follow-up visit.

During the actual blood donation process, your blood is drawn through a needle placed in a vein in one arm. A special machine separates the plasma and often the platelets from your blood sample. This process is called plasmapheresis. The remaining red blood cells and other blood components are then returned to your body, along with a little saline (salt) solution.

People with the blood type AB are in the greatest demand for plasma donation. They make up just 2 in 50 people, their plasma is universal. This means their plasma can be used by anyone.

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What is Malaria?

Malaria-mosquiteo

Malaria is a life-threatening disease. It’s typically transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito bites you, the parasite is released into your bloodstream.

Once the parasites are inside your body, they travel to the liver, where they mature. After several days, the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to infect red blood cells.

Within 48 to 72 hours, the parasites inside the red blood cells multiply, causing the infected cells to burst open.

The parasites continue to infect red blood cells, resulting in symptoms that occur in cycles that last two to three days at a time.

Signs and symptoms of malaria may include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • A general feeling of discomfort
  • Headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Fatigue
  • Rapid breathing
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Cough

Some people who have malaria experience cycles of malaria “attacks.” An attack usually starts with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating, and a return to normal temperature.

Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. However, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for up to a year.

How is malaria diagnosed?

Your doctor will be able to diagnose malaria. During your appointment, your doctor will review your health history, including any recent travel to tropical climates. A physical exam will also be performed.

Your doctor will be able to determine if you have an enlarged spleen or liver. If you have symptoms of malaria, your doctor may order additional blood tests to confirm your diagnosis.

These tests will show:

  • whether you have malaria
  • what type of malaria you have
  • if your infection is caused by a parasite that’s resistant to certain types of drugs
  • if the disease has caused anemia
  • if the disease has affected your vital organs

When to see a doctor?

Talk to your doctor if you experience a fever while living in or after traveling to a high-risk malaria region. If you have severe symptoms, seek emergency medical attention.8

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What is Fatty Liver?

Fatty Liver image

The liver typically contains some fat. However, if it builds up, it can cause fatty liver disease. This means that the liver is not able to function normally.

Fatty liver disease can occur when there is more than 5% fat in the liver.

Early symptoms can include:

  • loss of appetite
  • feeling sick or vomiting
  • weight loss
  • Tiredness

What Causes Fatty Liver?

There are several factors that may cause or contribute to developing fatty liver:

Obesity: Obesity involves low-grade inflammation that may promote liver fat storage. It’s estimated that 30–90% of obese adults have NAFLD, and it’s increasing in children due to the childhood obesity epidemic

Excess belly fat: Normal-weight people may develop fatty liver if they are “viscerally obese,” meaning they carry too much fat around the waist.

Insulin resistance: Insulin resistance and high insulin levels have been shown to increase liver fat storage in people with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

High intake of refined carbs: Frequent intake of refined carbs promotes liver fat storage, especially when high amounts are consumed by overweight or insulin-resistant individuals

Sugary beverage consumption: Sugar-sweetened beverages like soda and energy drinks are high in fructose, which has been shown to drive liver fat accumulation in children and adults

Impaired gut health: Recent research suggests that having an imbalance in gut bacteria, problems with gut barrier function (“leaky gut”), or other gut health issues may contribute to NAFLD development.

Symptoms of Fatty Liver

There are several signs and symptoms of fatty liver, although not all of these may be present.

In fact, you may not even realize you have fatty liver.

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Slight pain or fullness in the right or center abdominal area
  • Elevated levels of liver enzymes, including AST and ALT
  • Elevated insulin levels
  • Elevated triglyceride levels

If fatty liver progresses to NASH, the following symptoms may develop:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Moderate to severe abdominal pain
  • Yellowing of eyes and skin

It’s important to see your doctor regularly for standard exams and blood tests that can diagnose fatty liver at the early, reversible stage.

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What is Ovarian Cancer?

ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

It’s easy to overlook the early symptoms of ovarian cancer because they’re similar to other common illnesses or they tend to come and go. The early symptoms include:

Ovarian cancer can also cause other symptoms, such as:

These symptoms may occur for any number of reasons. They aren’t necessarily due to ovarian cancer. Many women have some of these problems at one time or another.

These types of symptoms are often temporary and respond to simple treatments in most cases.

The symptoms will persist if they’re due to ovarian cancer. Symptoms usually become more severe as the tumor grows. By this time, cancer has usually spread outside of the ovaries, making it much harder to treat effectively.

Again, cancers are best treated when detected early. Please consult with your doctor if you experience new and unusual symptom

 Causes  of ovarian cancer

It’s not clear what causes ovarian cancer, though doctors have identified factors that can increase the risk of the disease.

In general, cancer begins when a cell develops errors (mutations) in its DNA. The mutations tell the cell to grow and multiply quickly, creating a mass (tumor) of abnormal cells. The abnormal cells continue living when healthy cells would die. They can invade nearby tissues and break off from an initial tumor to spread elsewhere in the body.

Types of ovarian cancer

The type of cell where cancer begins determines the type of ovarian cancer you have. Ovarian cancer types include:

Epithelial tumors, which begin in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries. About 90 percent of ovarian cancers are epithelial tumors.

Stromal tumors, which begin in the ovarian tissue that contains hormone-producing cells. These tumors are usually diagnosed at an earlier stage than other ovarian tumors. About 7 percent of ovarian tumors are stromal.

Germ cell tumors, which begin in the egg-producing cells. These rare ovarian cancers tend to occur in younger women.

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What is Dengue Fever?

Dengue fever

Dengue (DENG-gey) fever is a mosquito-borne illness that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes a high fever and flu-like symptoms. The severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause serious bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock), and death.

Symptoms of Dengue Fever

Symptoms, which usually begin four to six days after infection and last for up to 10 days, may include

  • Sudden, high fever
  • Severe headaches
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Severe joint and muscle pain
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Skin rash, which appears two to five days after the onset of fever
  • Mild bleeding (such a nose bleed, bleeding gums, or easy bruising)

Sometimes, symptoms are mild and can be mistaken for those of the flu or another viral infection. Younger children and people who have never had the infection before tend to have milder cases than older children and adults. However, serious problems can develop. These include dengue hemorrhagic fever, a rare complication characterized by high fever, damage to lymph and blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and gums, enlargement of the liver, and failure of the circulatory system. The symptoms may progress to massive bleeding, shock, and death. This is called dengue shock syndrome (DSS).

People with weakened immune systems as well as those with a second or subsequent dengue infection are believed to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Causes of Dengue fever

Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses. You can’t get dengue fever from being around an infected person. Instead, dengue fever is spread through mosquito bites.

The two types of mosquitoes that most often spread the dengue viruses are common both in and around human lodgings. When a mosquito bites a person infected with a dengue virus, the virus enters the mosquito. Then, when the infected mosquito bites another person, the virus enters that person’s bloodstream and causes an infection.

After you’ve recovered from dengue fever, you have long-term immunity to the type of virus that infected you — but not to the other three dengue fever virus types. This means you can be infected again in the future by one of the other three virus types. Your risk of developing severe dengue fever increases if you get dengue fever a second, third, or fourth time.

Diagnosing Dengue Fever

 Doctors can diagnose dengue infection with a blood test to check for the virus or antibodies to it. If you become sick after traveling to a tropical area, let your doctor know. This will allow your doctor to evaluate the possibility that your symptoms were caused by a dengue infection.

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What are Hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the lowest part of your rectum and anus. Sometimes, the walls of these blood vessels stretch so thin that the veins bulge and get irritated, especially when you poop. Hemorrhoids are also called piles.

Hemorrhoids are one of the most common causes of rectal bleeding. They often go away on their own. Treatments can also help.

Symptoms of Hemorrhoids

Signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids usually depend on the type of hemorrhoid.

External hemorrhoids

These are under the skin around your anus. Signs and symptoms might include:

  • Itching or irritation in your anal region
  • Pain or discomfort
  • Swelling around your anus
  • Bleeding

Internal hemorrhoids

Internal hemorrhoids lie inside the rectum. You usually can’t see or feel them, and they rarely cause discomfort. But straining or irritation when passing stool can cause:

Painless bleeding during bowel movements. You might notice small amounts of bright red blood on your toilet tissue or in the toilet.

Hemorrhoid to push through the anal opening (prolapsed or protruding hemorrhoid), resulting in pain and irritation.

Thrombosed hemorrhoids

If blood pools in external hemorrhoid and forms a clot (thrombus), it can result in:

  • Severe pain
  • Swelling
  • Inflammation
  • A hard lump near your anus

Causes and Risk Factors of Hemorrhoids

You may be more likely to get hemorrhoids if other family members, like your parents, had them.

Pressure building up in your lower rectum can affect blood flow and make the veins there swell. That may happen from:

  • Pushing during bowel movements
  • Straining when you do something that’s physically hard, like lifting something heavy
  • Extra weight, like obesity
  • Pregnancy, when your growing uterus presses on your veins
  • A diet low in fiber
  • Anal sex

People who stand or sit for long stretches of time are at greater risk, too.

You may get them when you have constipation or diarrhea that doesn’t clear up. Coughingsneezing, and vomiting could make them worse.

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How to prevent from Pneumonia?

Pneumonia diesease

Pneumonia is a lung infection. It’s not contagious, but it’s often caused by upper respiratory tract infections in the nose and throat, which may be contagious.

Pneumonia can happen to anyone, at any age. Babies under age 2 and adults over age 65 are at higher risk. Other risk factors include:

  • living in a hospice or institutionalized setting
  • using a ventilator
  • frequent hospitalizations
  • a weakened immune system
  • a progressive lung disease, such as COPD
  • asthma
  • heart disease
  • smoking cigarettes

People at risk for aspiration pneumonia include those who:

  • overuse alcohol or recreational drugs
  • have medical issues affecting their gag reflexes, such as a brain injury or trouble swallowing
  • are recovering from surgical procedures that required anesthesia
  • Aspiration pneumonia is a specific type of lung infection that is caused by accidentally inhaling saliva, food, fluid, or vomit into your lungs. It’s not contagious.

Tips to prevent Pneumonia

Get Vaccinated

Get a flu shot every year to prevent seasonal influenza. The flu is a common cause of pneumonia, so preventing the flu is a good way to prevent pneumonia.

Children younger than 5 and adults 65 and older should get vaccinated against pneumococcal pneumonia, a common form of bacterial pneumonia. The pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended for all children and adults who are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease due to other health conditions. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccine. Talk to your healthcare provider to find out if one of them is right for you.

There are several other vaccines that can prevent infections by bacteria and viruses that may lead to pneumonia, including pertussis (whooping cough), chickenpox, and measles. Please talk to your doctor about whether you and your children are up to date on your vaccines and to determine if any of these vaccines are appropriate for you.

Wash Your Hands

 One of the best ways to keep yourself healthy and avoid getting sick is to wash your hands regularly. Use warm water and soap, and get a good lather going for at least 20 seconds. Rinse thoroughly and dry with a clean towel, or allow your hands to air dry. In addition, avoid touching your face and eyes

Quit Smoking

Smoking hurts your lungs and makes it harder for them to fight off infections like pneumonia. Smokers are also at greater risk of life-threatening pneumonia and the other illnesses that can come from it.

Quitting smoking will help your lungs become stronger and better able to fight infection. That’ll make it less likely that you’ll get pneumonia. If you do, it’ll be more likely that you can fight it.

If you smoke, in addition to the flu vaccine, talk with your doctor about the pneumococcal vaccine.

Don’t Drink, or Drink Less

When you abuse alcohol, your body is not as able to fight infection and stay healthy. Heavy drinkers are at greater risk for getting pneumonia and its complications. Experts recommend that women drink no more than one alcoholic beverage a day. Men should drink no more than two.

Take Care of Yourself

One of your best defenses against infection is a strong immune system. You can help yours if you:

  • Get regular exercise.
  • Follow a diet full of fruits and vegetables.
  • Get enough sleep.
  • Ease stress.
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rheumatoid arthritis osteoarthritis

What is Arthritis?

rheumatoid arthritis osteoarthritis

Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis causes cartilage — the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint — to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints.

Uric acid crystals, which form when there’s too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying diseases, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.

Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

Symptoms of Arthritis

Joint pain, stiffness, and swelling are the most common symptoms of arthritis. Your range of motion may also decrease, and you may experience redness of the skin around the joint. Many people with arthritis notice their symptoms are worse in the morning.

In the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), you may feel tired or experience a loss of appetite due to the inflammation the immune system’s activity causes. You may also become anemic — meaning your red blood cell count decreases — or have a slight fever. Severe RA can cause joint deformity if left untreated.

Causes of Arthritis

The two main types of arthritis — osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis — damage joints in different ways.

Osteoarthritis

The most common type of arthritis, osteoarthritis involves wear-and-tear damage to your joint’s cartilage — the hard, slick coating on the ends of bones where they form a joint. Cartilage cushions the ends of the bones and allows nearly frictionless joint motion, but enough damage can result in bone grinding directly on bone, which causes pain and restricted movement. This wear and tear can occur over many years, or it can be hastened by a joint injury or infection.

Osteoarthritis also affects the entire joint. It causes changes in the bones and deterioration of the connective tissues that attach muscle to bone and hold the joint together. It also causes inflammation of the joint lining.

Rheumatoid arthritis

In rheumatoid arthritis, the body’s immune system attacks the lining of the joint capsule, a tough membrane that encloses all the joint parts. This lining (synovial membrane) becomes inflamed and swollen. The disease process can eventually destroy cartilage and bone within the joint.

Arthritis Treatment

The main goal of treatment is to reduce the amount of pain you’re experiencing and prevent additional damage to the joints. You’ll learn what works best for you in terms of controlling pain. Some people find heating pads and ice packs to be soothing. Others use mobility assistance devices, like canes or walkers, to help take pressure off sore joints.

Improving your joint function is also important. Your doctor may prescribe you a combination of treatment methods to achieve the best results.

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cancer-symptoms-curable

What is Cancer?

cancer symptoms disease

Cancer can develop anywhere in the body. It starts when cells grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for your body to work the way it should.

Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.

Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down. As cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors.

Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors.

Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade nearby tissues. In addition, as these tumors grow, some cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system and form new tumors far from the original tumor.

Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not spread into, or invade nearby tissues. Benign tumors can sometimes be quite large, however. When removed, they usually don’t grow back, whereas malignant tumors sometimes do. Unlike most benign tumors elsewhere in the body, benign brain tumors can be life-threatening.

 Symptoms of Cancer

Signs and symptoms caused by cancer will vary depending on what part of the body is affected.

Some general signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific to, cancer, include:

  • Fatigue
  • Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
  • Weight changes, including unintended loss or gain
  • Skin changes, such as yellowing, darkening, or redness of the skin, sores that won’t heal, or changes to existing moles
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Persistent cough or trouble breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Hoarseness
  • Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
  • Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
  • Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats
  • Unexplained bleeding or bruising

What causes cancer?

Because cancer is a complex group of diseases, it can have many possible causes, such as lifestyle habits, genetics, carcinogens, and environmental factors. Sometimes there is no obvious cause.

 When to see a doctor?

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that concern you.

If you don’t have any signs or symptoms, but are worried about your risk of cancer, discuss your concerns with your doctor. Ask about which cancer screening tests and procedures are appropriate for you.

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