Emergency 24 x7 :
  Chetpet - 40054005 , Velappanchavadi - 40474047
For Appointment : Chetpet - 044 -42271234, Velappanchavadi: 044-40474057 / 8754889666
Book Appointment Online Pharmacy

Emergency : 24 x7
  Contact : 044-4005 4005
For Appointment : 044 -42271234 / Email: appointments@mehtahospital.com Book Appointment Online Pharmacy

All Posts Tagged: Best Hospitals in Chennai

Diabetic-Kidney-Diseases-Blog-Image--Thumb-size

What is Diabetic Kidney Diseases?

Diabetic-Kidney-Diseases-Blog-Image

Diabetic kidney disease is a decrease in kidney function that occurs in some people who have diabetes. It means that your kidneys are not doing their job as well as they once did to remove waste products and excess fluid from your body. These wastes can build up in your body and cause damage to other organs.

Cause of diabetes kidney disease

High blood glucose, also called blood sugar, can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. When the blood vessels are damaged, they don’t work as well. Many people with diabetes also develop high blood pressure, which can also damage your kidneys. Learn more about high blood pressure and kidney disease.

Symptoms of diabetes kidney disease

You are unlikely to have symptoms with early diabetic kidney disease – for example, if you just have microalbuminuria (defined above). Symptoms tend to develop when the kidney disease progresses. The symptoms at first tend to be vague and nonspecific, such as feeling tired, having less energy than usual and just not feeling well. With more severe kidney disease, symptoms that may develop include:

  • Difficulty thinking clearly.
  • A poor appetite.
  • Weight loss.
  • Dry, itchy skin.
  • Muscle cramps.
  • Fluid retention which causes swollen feet and ankles.
  • Puffiness around the eyes.
  • Needing to pass urine more often than usual.
  • Being pale due to anaemia.
  • Feeling sick (nausea).

As the kidney function declines, various other problems may develop – for example, anaemia and an imbalance of calcium, phosphate and other chemicals in the bloodstream. These can cause various symptoms, such as tiredness due to anaemia, and bone ‘thinning’ or fractures due to calcium and phosphate imbalance. End-stage kidney failure is eventually fatal unless treated.

Diabetic kidney disease diagnosis

Diabetic kidney disease is diagnosed when the level of albumin in the urine is raised and there is no other obvious cause for this. Urine tests are part of the routine checks that are offered to people with diabetes from time to time. Urine tests can detect albumin (protein) and measure how much is present in the urine.

The standard routine urine test is to compare the amount of albumin with the amount of creatinine in a urine sample. This is called the albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Creatinine is a breakdown product of muscle.

A blood test can show how well the kidneys are working. The blood test measures the level of creatinine, which is normally cleared from the blood by the kidneys. If your kidneys are not working properly, the level of creatinine in the blood goes up. An estimate of how well your kidneys are working can be made by taking into account the blood level of creatinine, your age and your sex. This estimate of kidney function is called the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Read More
Chicken-Pox-Blog-Image-Thumb-size

What is Chicken Pox?

Chicken pox virus

What is Chicken Pox?

Chickenpox is an infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It causes an itchy rash with small, fluid-filled blisters. Chickenpox is highly contagious to people who haven’t had the disease or been vaccinated against it. Today, a vaccine is available that protects children against chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is a safe, effective way to prevent chickenpox and its possible complications.

Symptoms

The itchy blister rash caused by chickenpox infection appears 10 to 21 days after exposure to the virus and usually lasts about five to 10 days. Other signs and symptoms, which may appear one to two days before the rash, include:

  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Headache
  • Tiredness and a general feeling of being unwell (malaise)

Once the chickenpox rash appears, it goes through three phases:

  • Raised pink or red bumps (papules), which break out over several days
  • Small fluid-filled blisters (vesicles), which form in about one day and then break and leak
  • Crusts and scabs, which cover the broken blisters and take several more days to heal

What causes chickenpox?

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes the chickenpox infection. Most cases occur through contact with an infected person. The virus is contagious to those around you for one to two days before your blisters appear. VZV remains contagious until all blisters have crusted over. The virus can spread through:

  • saliva
  • coughing
  • sneezing
  • contact with fluid from the blisters

Who Gets It?

Children under age 2 are most at risk for chickenpox. In fact, 90% of all cases occur in young children. But older kids and adults can get it, too.

You’re more at risk for chickenpox if you:

  • Haven’t had the virus before
  • Haven’t been vaccinated for it
  • Work in a school or child care facility
  • Live with children
Read More
Uterine-Fibroid-Utilization-Blog-Thumb-size

What is Uterine Fibroid Utilization?

Uterine-Fibroid-Utilization-Blog-Image

What is Uterine Fibroid Utilization?

Uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) is a minimally invasive treatment for fibroid tumors of the uterus. The procedure is also sometimes referred to as Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) also.

Why it’s done

Uterine fibroids can cause severe symptoms in some women, including heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain and swelling of the abdomen. Uterine artery embolization destroys fibroid tissue and eases these symptoms. And it provides an alternative to surgery to remove fibroids (myomectomy).

You might choose uterine artery embolization if you’re premenopausal and:

  • You have severe pain or heavy bleeding from uterine fibroids
  • You want to avoid surgery, or surgery is too risky for you
  • You want to keep your uterus
  • Optimizing a future pregnancy isn’t your chief concern

Risks

Uterine artery embolization is generally safe. Ask your doctor about these possible problems.

A risk for any anesthesia is having a bad reaction to the anesthetic that is used.

The risks for any invasive procedure are:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Bruising

The risks of uterine artery embolization are:

  • Injury to an artery or to the uterus
  • Complications with a future pregnancy. Some of these are intrauterine growth restriction (a condition that causes the baby to grow more slowly than usual in the uterus), preterm delivery (the baby is born early), bleeding after delivery, problems with the placenta, and miscarriage.
  • Pregnancy is not recommended after this procedure
  • Early menopause

Before the Procedure

Always tell your doctor or nurse:

  • If you could be pregnant
  • What drugs you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription

Before your UAE:

You may be asked to stop taking aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), warfarin (Coumadin), and any other drugs that make it hard for your blood to clot.

Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.

If you smoke, try to stop. Ask your doctor or nurse for help.

On the day of your UAE:

  • You will usually be asked not to drink or eat anything for 6 to 8 hours before this procedure.
  • Take the drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.
  • Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.
  • After Uterine Artery Embolization

After the Procedure

  • Women usually stay in the hospital overnight after UAE. Some women are able to go home a few hours after treatment, but this is less common.
  • You will receive pain medicine. You will be asked to lie flat for 4 to 6 hours after the procedure.
  • Pelvic cramps are common for the first 24 hours after the procedure. They may last for 2 weeks. Cramps may be severe and may last more than 6 hours at a time.
  • The treated fibroid tissue may pass through your vagina.
Read More
Pelvic-Inflammatory--thumb-size

What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Pelvic-Inflammatory-Disease-Blog-Image

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs. It most often occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria spread from your vagina to your uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries.

The signs and symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease can be subtle or mild. Some women don’t experience any signs or symptoms. As a result, you might not realize you have it until you have trouble getting pregnant or you develop chronic pelvic pain.

Causes of pelvic inflammatory disease

Many types of bacteria can cause PID, but gonorrhea or chlamydia infections are the most common. These bacteria are usually acquired during unprotected sex.

Less commonly, bacteria can enter your reproductive tract anytime the normal barrier created by the cervix is disturbed. This can happen during menstruation and after childbirth, miscarriage or abortion. Rarely, bacteria can also enter the reproductive tract during the insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD) — a form of long-term birth control — or any medical procedure that involves inserting instruments into the uterus.

Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease

Some women with pelvic inflammatory disease don’t have symptoms. For the women who do have symptoms, these can include:

  • pain in the lower abdomen (the most common symptom)
  • pain in the upper abdomen
  • fever
  • painful sex
  • painful urination
  • irregular bleeding
  • increased or foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • tiredness

Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause mild or moderate pain. However, some women have severe pain and symptoms, such as:

  • sharp pain in the abdomen
  • vomiting
  • fainting
  • a high fever (greater than 101°F)

If you have severe symptoms, call your doctor immediately or go to the emergency room. The infection may have spread to your bloodstream or other parts of your body. This can be life-threatening.

When to see a doctor

See your doctor or seek urgent medical care if you experience:

  • Severe pain low in your abdomen
  • Nausea and vomiting, with an inability to keep anything down
  • Fever, with a temperature higher than 101 F (38.3 C)
  • Foul vaginal discharge

If you have signs and symptoms of PID that aren’t severe, still see your doctor as soon as possible. Vaginal discharge with an odor, painful urination or bleeding between menstrual cycles can also be symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Read More
Epilepsy-thumb-size

What is Epilepsy?

 

Epilepsy-Blog-Image

Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that causes unprovoked, recurrent seizures. A seizure is a sudden rush of electrical activity in the brain.

There are two main types of seizures. Generalized seizures affect the whole brain. Focal, or partial seizures, affect just one part of the brain.

A mild seizure may be difficult to recognize. It can last a few seconds during which you lack awareness.

Stronger seizures can cause spasms and uncontrollable muscle twitches, and can last a few seconds to several minutes. During a stronger seizure, some people become confused or lose consciousness. Afterward you may have no memory of it happening.

There are several reasons you might have a seizure. These include:

  • high fever
  • head trauma
  • very low blood sugar
  • alcohol withdrawal

Symptoms

Because epilepsy is caused by abnormal activity in the brain, seizures can affect any process your brain coordinates. Seizure signs and symptoms may include:

  • Temporary confusion
  • A staring spell
  • Uncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legs
  • Loss of consciousness or awareness
  • Psychic symptoms such as fear, anxiety or deja vu

Symptoms vary depending on the type of seizure. In most cases, a person with epilepsy will tend to have the same type of seizure each time, so the symptoms will be similar from episode to episode.

Doctors generally classify seizures as either focal or generalized, based on how the abnormal brain activity begins.

Focal seizures

When seizures appear to result from abnormal activity in just one area of your brain, they’re called focal (partial) seizures. These seizures fall into two categories:

Focal seizures without loss of consciousness. Once called simple partial seizures, these seizures don’t cause a loss of consciousness. They may alter emotions or change the way things look, smell, feel, taste or sound. They may also result in involuntary jerking of a body part, such as an arm or leg, and spontaneous sensory symptoms such as tingling, dizziness and flashing lights.

Focal seizures with impaired awareness. Once called complex partial seizures, these seizures involve a change or loss of consciousness or awareness. During a complex partial seizure, you may stare into space and not respond normally to your environment or perform repetitive movements, such as hand rubbing, chewing, swallowing or walking in circles.

Symptoms of focal seizures may be confused with other neurological disorders, such as migraine, narcolepsy or mental illness. A thorough examination and testing are needed to distinguish epilepsy from other disorders.

Generalized seizures

Seizures that appear to involve all areas of the brain are called generalized seizures. Six types of generalized seizures exist.

Absence seizures. Absence seizures, previously known as petit mal seizures, often occur in children and are characterized by staring into space or subtle body movements such as eye blinking or lip smacking. These seizures may occur in clusters and cause a brief loss of awareness.

Tonic seizures. Tonic seizures cause stiffening of your muscles. These seizures usually affect muscles in your back, arms and legs and may cause you to fall to the ground.

Atonic seizures. Atonic seizures, also known as drop seizures, cause a loss of muscle control, which may cause you to suddenly collapse or fall down.

Clonic seizures. Clonic seizures are associated with repeated or rhythmic, jerking muscle movements. These seizures usually affect the neck, face and arms.

Myoclonic seizures. Myoclonic seizures usually appear as sudden brief jerks or twitches of your arms and legs.

Tonic-clonic seizures. Tonic-clonic seizures, previously known as grand mal seizures, are the most dramatic type of epileptic seizure and can cause an abrupt loss of consciousness, body stiffening and shaking, and sometimes loss of bladder control or biting your tongue.

What triggers an epileptic seizure?

Some people are able to identify things or situations that can trigger seizures.

A few of the most commonly reported triggers are:

  • lack of sleep
  • illness or fever
  • stress
  • bright lights, flashing lights, or patterns
  • caffeine, alcohol, medicines, or drugs
  • skipping meals, overeating, or specific food ingredients

Identifying triggers isn’t always easy. A single incident doesn’t always mean something is a trigger. It’s often a combination of factors that trigger a seizure.

A good way to find your triggers is to keep a seizure journal. After each seizure, note the following:

  • day and time
  • what activity you were involved in
  • what was happening around you
  • unusual sights, smells, or sounds
  • unusual stressors
  • what you were eating or how long it had been since you’d eaten
  • your level of fatigue and how well you slept the night before

You can also use your seizure journal to determine if your medications are working. Note how you felt just before and just after your seizure, and any side effects.

Bring the medical history with you when you visit the doctor. It may be useful in adjusting your medications or exploring other treatments.

Read More
What-is-Dialysis-Blog--thumb-size

What is Dialysis?

What-is-Dialysis-Blog-Image

The kidneys filter your blood by removing waste and excess fluid from your body. This waste is sent to the bladder to be eliminated when you urinate.

Dialysis performs the function of the kidneys if they’ve failed. Dialysis is a treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine. This helps keep your fluids and electrolytes in balance when the kidneys can’t do their job.

A healthy person’s kidneys filter around 120 to 150 quarts of blood each day. If the kidneys are not working correctly, waste builds up in the blood. Eventually, this can lead to coma and death.

The cause might be a chronic, or long-term condition, or an acute problem, such as an injury or a short-term illness that affects the kidneys.

Dialysis prevents the waste products in the blood from reaching hazardous levels. It can also remove toxins or drugs from the blood in an emergency setting.

What does dialysis do?

When your kidneys fail, dialysis keeps your body in balance by:

  • removing waste, salt and extra water to prevent them from building up in the body
  • keeping a safe level of certain chemicals in your blood, such as potassium, sodium and bicarbonate
  • helping to control blood pressure

Types of dialysis

There are different types of dialysis.

The three main approaches are:

  • Hemodialysis
  • Peritoneal dialysis (PD)
  • Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)

The choice will depend on factors such as the patient’s situation, availability, and cost.

Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis is the most common type of dialysis. This process uses an artificial kidney (hemodialyzer) to remove waste and extra fluid from the blood. The blood is removed from the body and filtered through the artificial kidney. The filtered blood is then returned to the body with the help of a dialysis machine.

To get the blood to flow to the artificial kidney, your doctor will perform surgery to create an entrance point (vascular access) into your blood vessels. The three types of entrance points are:

  • Arteriovenous (AV) fistula. This type connects an artery and a vein. It’s the preferred option.
  • AV graft. This type is a looped tube.
  • Vascular access catheter. This may be inserted into the large vein in your neck.

Hemodialysis treatments usually last three to five hours and are performed three times per week. However, hemodialysis treatment can also be completed in shorter, more frequent sessions.

Most hemodialysis treatments are performed at a hospital, doctor’s office, or dialysis center. The length of treatment depends on your body size, the amount of waste in your body, and the current state of your health.

Peritoneal dialysis

Peritoneal dialysis involves surgery to implant a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter into your abdomen.

The catheter helps filter your blood through the peritoneum, a membrane in your abdomen. During treatment, a special fluid called dialysate flows into the peritoneum. The dialysate absorbs waste. Once the dialysate draws waste out of the bloodstream, it’s drained from your abdomen.

This process takes a few hours and needs to be repeated four to six times per day. However, the exchange of fluids can be performed while you’re sleeping or awake.

Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)

This therapy is used primarily in the intensive care unit for people with acute kidney failure. It’s also known as hemofiltration. A machine passes the blood through tubing. A filter then removes waste products and water. The blood is returned to the body, along with replacement fluid. This procedure is performed 12 to 24 hours a day, generally every day.

How do I prepare for dialysis?

Before your first dialysis treatment, your doctor will surgically implant a tube or device to gain access to your bloodstream. This is typically a quick operation. You should be able to return home the same day.

It’s best to wear comfortable clothing during your dialysis treatments. Also follow your doctor’s instructions. These may include fasting for a certain amount of time before the treatment.

Read More
Chronic-Bronchitis-Thumb-size

What is Chronic Bronchitis?

Chronic-Bronchitis-Blog-Image

Coughing is a way for your body to get rid of harmful things in your lungs. But coughing too much can be bad, too. If you’ve had a cough that’s gone on for what feels like forever, you might have a serious condition called chronic bronchitis.

Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD is a group of lung diseases that make it hard to breathe and get worse over time. The other main type of COPD is emphysema. Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but how severe each type is can be different from person to person.

Chronic bronchitis is inflammation (swelling) and irritation of the bronchial tubes. These tubes are the airways that carry air to and from the air sacs in your lungs. The irritation of the tubes causes mucus to build up. This mucus and the swelling of the tubes make it harder for your lungs to move oxygen in and carbon dioxide out of your body.

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis

Cigarette smoking is by far the No. 1 cause of chronic bronchitis. More than 90% of people with the disease smoke or used to smoke. Other things that raise your chances for it include:

  • Secondhand smoke
  • Dust
  • Certain fumes, like hairspray if you work in a hair salon or house paint if you’re a building contractor
  • Air pollution, welding fumes, engine exhaust
  • Coal, fire smoke

Twice as many women get diagnosed with chronic bronchitis as men do. Most people who have the disease are 44 to 65.

Chronic bronchitis may make it easier for you to catch respiratory infections like colds, the flu, and pneumonia.

Symptoms of Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis fills your airways with thick mucus. The small hairs that normally move phlegm out of your lungs are damaged. That makes you cough. As the disease goes on, it’s harder for you to breathe.

Other signs of chronic bronchitis may include:

  • Cough, often with mucus
  • Wheezing
  • Tight chest
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling tired

Your symptoms may be worst in the winter, when humidity and temperatures drop.

When to call Doctor?

Many people dismiss symptoms of chronic bronchitis, believing they simply have smoker’s cough. However, it’s important to contact your doctor right away if you have even the slightest suspicion that you might have bronchitis. Failing to receive timely treatment for chronic bronchitis greatly increases your risk of severe lung damage, which can lead to respiratory problems or heart failure.

Call your doctor right away if your cough:

  • lasts longer than three weeks
  • prevents you from sleeping
  • is accompanied by a fever above 100.4°F
  • produces discolored mucus or blood
  • causes wheezing or shortness of breath

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your smoking history and listen to your lungs with a stethoscope. You may take tests, including:

Pulmonary function tests: This is a series of measurements of how much air your lungs can hold while breathing in and out.

Chest X-ray: Uses radiation to make a picture of your lungs to rule out heart failure or other illnesses that make it hard to breathe.

Computed tomography: This CT scan give a much more detailed look at your airways than a chest X-ray.

Read More
Heart-Infection-thumb-size

What is Heart Infection?

Heart-Infection-Blog-Image

Heart infections occur when an irritant such as bacteria, a virus, a parasite, or a chemical reaches your heart muscle. An infection can cause inflammation or damage to your heart’s inner lining, valves, outer membrane, or the heart muscle itself.

Types of Heart Infection

Your heart has three main layers, any of which can be the site of a heart infection. The types of heart infection include:

Endocarditis is an infection or inflammation of the endocardium. This is the inner most layer of the heart. The endocardium lines the inside of the four heart chambers and the four heart valves. Endocarditis is the most common type of heart infection. It most often occurs in people with pre-existing valve disease and other heart problems. Treatment usually requires hospitalization.

Myocarditis is an infection or inflammation of the myocardium. This is the middle muscular layer of the heart. Viral infections are one of several causes of myocarditis. This type of heart infection is rare.

Pericarditis is an infection or inflammation of the pericardium. This is the outer layer or membrane covering the heart. A viral infection is the most common cause. It occurs most often in men age 20 to 50 years from a viral infection. Typically, people recover with rest and treatment of symptoms.

General symptoms of a heart infection include chest pain, fever, and shortness of breath. These symptoms can also be present with a life-threatening condition, such as heart attack. Seek immediate medical care if you, or someone you are with, have these symptoms.

Causes of Heart Infection

Pericarditis can be caused by a viral infection or after a heart attack or heart surgery. It can also develop as the result of inflammatory autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis; trauma to the heart or chest; health disorders like kidney failure or AIDS; and certain medications, although this is unusual.

Endocarditis usually occurs when germs travel through your bloodstream, travel to your heart, and attach to damaged heart tissue. Bacteria can spread as the result of unhealthy teeth and gums, a skin sore, certain dental procedures, a sexually transmitted infection, or a catheter or needle.

Myocarditis is generally caused by a viral infection or autoimmune disease. Because the condition is so unusual, research is still being done on its causes.

What are the symptoms of a heart infection?

Heart infection symptoms with endocarditis can be obvious and develop quickly. This is acute endocarditis, which can rapidly become serious and life threatening. However, they can also be vague and develop gradually, even over months. This is subacute or chronic endocarditis.

Common symptoms of a heart infection

The most common symptoms of endocarditis are:

  • Chest pain, especially with breathing
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Fever, chills, and sweats
  • General feeling of being unwell
  • Muscle aches
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swelling in the abdomen or lower extremities

Serious symptoms that might indicate a life-threatening condition

In some cases, a heart infection can cause life-threatening complications. Seek immediate medical care if you, or someone you are with, have any of these life-threatening symptoms including:

  • Chest pain
  • Confusion, disorientation or difficulty understanding speech
  • Drooping on one side of the face
  • Severe headache
  • Slurred or garbled speech, or inability to speak
  • Sudden vision changes
  • Sudden weakness, numbnessor paralysis on one side of the body or face

Even if you do not have these potentially life-threatening symptoms, it is wise to seek medical care for any symptoms of heart infection.

Treatment of a heart infection

Heart infections are generally treated with one or more of the following methods:

  • Antibiotics.
  • Medications used to treat heart failure.
  • Corticosteroids.
  • Drugs that reduce inflammation in the body.
  • Occasionally, surgery.
Read More
Four-Stages-of-pneumonia-thumb-size

What are the Four Stages of pneumonia ?

Four-Stages-of-pneumonia-Blog-Image

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that causes cough, fever, and trouble breathing. It can cause serious illness in young children, people over age 65, and people with other health problems. Pneumonia may affect one or both lungs.

What are the stages of pneumonia?

Pneumonia can be classified or characterized in different ways. Health care professionals often refer to pneumonia based upon the way that the infection is acquired, such as community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia.

  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as the name implies, is a respiratory infection of the lung that develops outside of the hospital or health care environment. It is more common than hospital-acquired pneumonia. CAP is most common in winter and affects about 4 million people in a year
  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is acquired when an individual is already hospitalized for another condition. HAP is generally more serious because it develops in ill patients already hospitalized or under medical care for another condition. Being on a ventilator for respiratory support increases the risk of acquiring HAP. Health care-associated pneumonia is acquired from other health care settings, like kidney dialysis centers, outpatient clinics, or nursing homes.

Other classification systems for pneumonia describe the way the inflammatory cells infiltrate the lung tissue or the appearance of the affected tissue (see the following examples).

  • Bronchopneumonia causes scattered, patchy infiltrates of inflammation in the air sacs throughout the lungs. It is more diffuse than lobar pneumonia.
  • Lobar pneumonia causes an inflammation of one lobe of a lung and typically involves all the airspaces in a single lobe.
  • Lipoid pneumonia is characterized by the accumulation of fats within the airspaces. It can be caused by aspiration of oils or associated with airway obstruction.

What Is the Staging for Pneumonia?

A type of pneumonia, called lobar pneumonia, has 4 stages of development and resolution which include:

  • In the first stage, which occurs within 24 hours of infection, the lung has increased blood flow and swelling to the airways, but only a few bacteria or white blood cells to fight infection are present.
  • The second stage (day 2-3), is characterized by white and red blood cells and damaged cellular debris clogging the airways and air-sacs (alveoli) and an increase in bacteria.
  • In the third stage (day 4-6), the lung has accumulation of more damaged red blood cells and an increase in fibrin as the debris thins out and becomes more fluid-like (exudative).
  • The fourth and final stage, called resolution (day 7-10), is characterized by resorption of inflammatory fluids and cellular debris and restoration of the normal airways and air-sacs. Residual inflammation may lead to chronic narrowing of airways and scar tissue (pleural adhesions).

How Do You Prevent Pneumonia?

Patients can reduce their risk of getting pneumonia in some cases.

  • Get vaccinated
  • Wash hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds

Get an annual flu shot. Flu is a common cause of pneumonia.

Children under age 5, adults 65 and older, and patients at increased risk of pneumococcal disease due to other health conditions should get pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine, a common form of bacterial pneumonia

In children: Hib vaccine, which prevents pneumonia in children from Haemophilus influenza type b

Other vaccines that can prevent infections by bacteria and viruses that may lead to pneumonia, including pertussis (whooping cough), chicken pox, and measles. Wash Your Hands

  • Wash hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds
  • Don’t smoke
  • Eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and get adequate sleep to stay healthy
  • Synagis (palivizumab) may be given to some children younger than 24 months to prevent pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Read More
Prostate--thumb-size

What Is Prostate?

Prostate-Blog-Image

The prostate gland (the prostate) is an organ of the male reproductive system. It is about the size of a walnut and is found at the base of the bladder. The thin tube that allows urine and semen to pass out of the penis (the urethra) runs through the prostate gland. Alkaline fluid produced by the prostate gland helps to nourish sperm and leaves the urethra as ejaculate (semen). The prostate undergoes two main growth spurts. The first is fuelled by the sex hormones made by the testes during puberty. This prompts the prostate to reach an average weight of 20 grams. The second growth spurt begins when men are in their thirties.

Common Problems

Here are some examples of non-cancer prostate problems:

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, is very common in older men. It means your prostate is enlarged but not cancerous. Treatments for BPH include:

Watchful waiting also called active surveillance. If your symptoms are not too bad, your doctor may tell you to wait to see if they get worse before starting treatment. Your doctor will tell you how often to return for check-ups.

Medications. Medicines can help shrink the prostate or relax muscles near your prostate to ease symptoms.

Surgery. If nothing else has worked, your doctor may suggest surgery to help urine flow.

Other treatments. Sometimes radio waves, microwaves, or lasers are used to treat urinary problems caused by BPH. These methods use different kinds of heat to reduce extra prostate tissue.

Acute bacterial prostatitis usually starts suddenly from a bacterial infection. See your doctor right away if you have fever, chills, or pain in addition to prostate symptoms. Most cases can be cured with antibiotics. You also may need medication to help with pain or discomfort.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis is an infection that comes back again and again. This rare problem can be hard to treat. Sometimes, taking antibiotics for a long time may work. Talk with your doctor about other things you can do to help you feel better.

Chronic prostatitis, also called chronic pelvic pain syndrome, is a common prostate problem. It can cause pain in the lower back, in the groin, or at the tip of the penis. Treatment may require a combination of medicines, surgery, and lifestyle changes.

Be sure to talk with your doctor about the possible side effects of treatment.

The three most common types of prostate disease are:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Prostatitis
  • Prostate cancer

Symptoms of Prostate Problems

See your doctor right away if you have any of these symptoms:

  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Need to get up many times during the night to urinate
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Pain or burning urination
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Frequent pain or stiffness in lower back, hips, pelvic or rectal area, or upper thighs
  • Dribbling of urine

Diagnosis of prostate disease

Prostate disease is diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:

  • physical examination, including digital rectal examination (DRE), where the doctor inserts a gloved finger into your rectum to check the size of your prostate
  • blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA test; discuss this with your doctor)
  • mid-stream urine (MSU) tests to look for infection or blood in the urine
  • ultrasound scans and urinary flow studies
  • biopsies of the prostate.
Read More