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What are the Four Stages of pneumonia ?

Four-Stages-of-pneumonia-Blog-Image

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that causes cough, fever, and trouble breathing. It can cause serious illness in young children, people over age 65, and people with other health problems. Pneumonia may affect one or both lungs.

What are the stages of pneumonia?

Pneumonia can be classified or characterized in different ways. Health care professionals often refer to pneumonia based upon the way that the infection is acquired, such as community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia.

  • Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as the name implies, is a respiratory infection of the lung that develops outside of the hospital or health care environment. It is more common than hospital-acquired pneumonia. CAP is most common in winter and affects about 4 million people in a year
  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is acquired when an individual is already hospitalized for another condition. HAP is generally more serious because it develops in ill patients already hospitalized or under medical care for another condition. Being on a ventilator for respiratory support increases the risk of acquiring HAP. Health care-associated pneumonia is acquired from other health care settings, like kidney dialysis centers, outpatient clinics, or nursing homes.

Other classification systems for pneumonia describe the way the inflammatory cells infiltrate the lung tissue or the appearance of the affected tissue (see the following examples).

  • Bronchopneumonia causes scattered, patchy infiltrates of inflammation in the air sacs throughout the lungs. It is more diffuse than lobar pneumonia.
  • Lobar pneumonia causes an inflammation of one lobe of a lung and typically involves all the airspaces in a single lobe.
  • Lipoid pneumonia is characterized by the accumulation of fats within the airspaces. It can be caused by aspiration of oils or associated with airway obstruction.

What Is the Staging for Pneumonia?

A type of pneumonia, called lobar pneumonia, has 4 stages of development and resolution which include:

  • In the first stage, which occurs within 24 hours of infection, the lung has increased blood flow and swelling to the airways, but only a few bacteria or white blood cells to fight infection are present.
  • The second stage (day 2-3), is characterized by white and red blood cells and damaged cellular debris clogging the airways and air-sacs (alveoli) and an increase in bacteria.
  • In the third stage (day 4-6), the lung has accumulation of more damaged red blood cells and an increase in fibrin as the debris thins out and becomes more fluid-like (exudative).
  • The fourth and final stage, called resolution (day 7-10), is characterized by resorption of inflammatory fluids and cellular debris and restoration of the normal airways and air-sacs. Residual inflammation may lead to chronic narrowing of airways and scar tissue (pleural adhesions).

How Do You Prevent Pneumonia?

Patients can reduce their risk of getting pneumonia in some cases.

  • Get vaccinated
  • Wash hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds

Get an annual flu shot. Flu is a common cause of pneumonia.

Children under age 5, adults 65 and older, and patients at increased risk of pneumococcal disease due to other health conditions should get pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine, a common form of bacterial pneumonia

In children: Hib vaccine, which prevents pneumonia in children from Haemophilus influenza type b

Other vaccines that can prevent infections by bacteria and viruses that may lead to pneumonia, including pertussis (whooping cough), chicken pox, and measles. Wash Your Hands

  • Wash hands frequently with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds
  • Don’t smoke
  • Eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and get adequate sleep to stay healthy
  • Synagis (palivizumab) may be given to some children younger than 24 months to prevent pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

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